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Controversies in the Determination of Death


The President's Council on Bioethics
Washington, D.C.
January 2009

Topical Bibliography

1 Publications of Government Commissions and Professional Societies

1.1 Neurological Standard

Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death. “A Definition of Irreversible Coma.” JAMA 205, no. 6 (1968): 337-40.

American Academy of Neurology, Quality Standards Subcommittee. “Practice Parameters for Determining Brain Death in Adults (Summary Statement).” Neurology 45, no. 5 (1995): 1012-4.

Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences, Task Force on Death and Dying. “Refinements in Criteria for the Determination of Death: An Appraisal.” JAMA 221, no. 1 (1972): 48-53.

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1981.

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Report of the Medical Consultants on the Diagnosis of Death. “Guidelines for the Determination of Death.” JAMA 246, no. 19 (1981): 2184-6.

Shemie, S. D., C. Doig, B. Dickens, P. Byrne, B. Wheelock, G. Rocker, A. Baker, et al. “Severe Brain Injury to Neurological Determination of Death: Canadian Forum Recommendations.” CMAJ 174, no. 6 (2006): S1-13.

Task Force for the Determination of Brain Death in Children. “Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Children.” Neurology 37, no. 6 (1987): 1077-8.

1.2 Donation After Cardiac Death

Bernat, J. L., A. M. D'Alessandro, F. K. Port, T. P. Bleck, S. O. Heard, J. Medina, S. H. Rosenbaum, et al. “Report of a National Conference on Donation after Cardiac Death.” Am J Transplant 6, no. 2 (2006): 281-91.

Institute of Medicine. Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation: Medical and Ethical Issues in Procurement. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

———. Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation: Practice and Protocols. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

———. Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2006.

Joint Commission. “2009 Accreditation Requirements: Accreditation Program: Critical Access Hospital.” 2008.

Shemie, S. D., A. J. Baker, G. Knoll, W. Wall, G. Rocker, D. Howes, J. Davidson, et al. “National Recommendations for Donation after Cardiocirculatory Death in Canada: Donation after Cardiocirculatory Death in Canada.” CMAJ 175, no. 8 (2006): S1.

Society of Critical Care Medicine. “Recommendations for Nonheartbeating Organ Donation.” Crit Care Med 29, no. 9 (2001): 1826-31.

2 Critical Literature: The Neurological Standard for Death

2.1 Law, Policy, and History

Bagheri, A. “Organ Transplantation Laws in Asian Countries: A Comparative Study.” Transplant Proc 37, no. 10 (2005): 4159-62.

Beresford, H. R. “Legal Aspects of Brain Death.” In Brain Death, edited by E. F. Wijdicks. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

Capron, A. M., and F. Cate. “Death and Organ Transplantation.” In Treatise on Health Care Law, edited by R. M. Kaufman, M. G. Macdonald, A. M. Capron, I. M. Birnbaum. New York: Matthew Bender, 1991.

Diringer, M. N., and E. F. Wijdicks. “Brain Death in Historical Perspective.” In Brain Death, edited by E. F. Wijdicks, 5-27. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

Lock, M. M. Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Machado, C. “The First Organ Transplant from a Brain-Dead Donor.” Neurology 64, no. 11 (2005): 1938-42.

Machado, C., J. Kerein, Y. Ferrer, L. Portela, M. de la C. García, and J. M. Manero. “The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants.” J Med Ethics 33, no. 4 (2007): 197-200.

Pernick, M. S. “Back from the Grave: Recurring Controversies over Defining and Diagnosing Death in History.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner, 17-74. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

———. “Brain Death in a Cultural Context: The Reconstruction of Death, 1967-1981.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 3-33. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Wendler, D., and N. Dickert. “The Consent Process for Cadaveric Organ Procurement: How Does It Work? How Can It Be Improved?” JAMA 285, no. 3 (2001): 329-33.

Wijdicks, E. F. “The Neurologist and Harvard Criteria for Brain Death.” Neurology 61, no. 7 (2003): 970-6.

2.2 Clinical Guidelines, Practice, and Research

Agarwal, R., N. Singh, and D. Gupta. “Is the Patient Brain-Dead?” Emerg Med J 23, no. 1 (2006): e5.

Bernat, J. L. “On Irreversibility as a Prerequisite for Brain Death Determination.” Adv Exp Med Biol 550 (2004): 161-7.

Booth, C. M., R. H. Boone, G. Tomlinson, and A. S. Detsky. “Is This Patient Dead, Vegetative, or Severely Neurologically Impaired? Assessing Outcome for Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest.” JAMA 291, no. 7 (2004): 870-9.

Ingvar, D. H. “Brain Death ? Total Brain Infarction.” Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 45 (1971): 129-40.

Karakatsanis K. G. “‘Brain Death': Should It Be Reconsidered?” Spinal Cord 46, no. 6 (2008): 396-401.

Laureys, S. “Science and Society: Death, Unconsciousness and the Brain.” Nat Rev Neurosci 6, no. 11 (2005): 899-909.

Laureys, S., A. M. Owen, and N. D. Schiff. “Brain Function in Coma, Vegetative State, and Related Disorders.” Lancet Neurol 3, no. 9 (2004): 537-46.

Mollaret, P., and M. Goulon. “Le Coma Dépassé.” Rev Neurol ( Paris ) 101 (1959): 3-15.

Plum, F. “Clinical Standards and Technological Confirmatory Tests in Diagnosing Brain Death.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 34-65. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Powner, D. J., and I. M. Bernstein. “Extended Somatic Support for Pregnant Women after Brain Death.” Crit Care Med 31, no. 4 (2003): 1241-9.

Repertinger, S., W. P. Fitzgibbons, M. F. Omojola, and R. A. Brumback. “Long Survival Following Bacterial Meningitis-Associated Brain Destruction.” J Child Neurol 21, no. 7 (2006): 591-5.

Silverman, M. E., D. Grove, and C. B. Upshaw, Jr. “Why Does the Heart Beat? The Discovery of the Electrical System of the Heart.” Circulation 113, no. 23 (2006): 2775-81.

Stedman, T. L. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1995.

Sundin-Huard, D., and K. Fahy. “The Problems with the Validity of the Diagnosis of Brain Death.” Nurs Crit Care 9, no. 2 (2004): 64-71.

Waters, C. E., G. French, and M. Burt. “Difficulty in Brainstem Death Testing in the Presence of High Spinal Cord Injury.” Br J Anaesth 92, no. 5 (2004): 760-4.

Wijdicks, E. F. “The Diagnosis of Brain Death.” N Engl J Med 344, no. 16 (2001): 1215-21.

———. “Clinical Diagnosis and Confirmatory Testing of Brain Death in Adults.” In Brain Death, edited by E. F. Wijdicks. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

Wijdicks, E. F., and J.L. Atkinson. “Pathophysiologic Responses to Brain Death.” In Brain Death, edited by E. F. Wijdicks. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

2.2.1 "Donor Management"

Arbour, R. “Clinical Management of the Organ Donor.” AACN Clin Issues 16, no. 4 (2005): 551-80.

Darby, J. M., K. Stein, A. Grenvik, and S. A. Stuart. “Approach to Management of the Heartbeating ‘Brain Dead' Organ Donor.” JAMA 261, no. 15 (1989): 2222-8.

Dosemeci, L., M. Cengiz, M. Yilmaz, and A. Ramazanoglu. “Frequency of Spinal Reflex Movements in Brain-Dead Patients.” Transplant Proc 36, no. 1 (2004): 17-9.

Keep, P. J. “Anaesthesia for Organ Donation in the Brainstem Dead.” Anaesthesia 55, no. 6 (2000): 590.

Saposnik, G., J. A. Bueri, J. Maurino, R. Saizar, and N. S. Garretto. “Spontaneous and Reflex Movements in Brain Death.” Neurology 54, no. 1 (2000): 221-3.

Wace, J., and M. Kai. “Anaesthesia for Organ Donation in the Brainstem Dead.” Anaesthesia 55, no. 6 (2000): 590.

Young, P. J., and B. F. Matta. “Anaesthesia for Organ Donation in the Brainstem Dead—Why Bother?” Anaesthesia 55, no. 2 (2000): 105-6.

2.2.2 Consistency in Application of Diagnostic Criteria

Powner, D. J., M. Hernandez, and T. E. Rives. “Variability among Hospital Policies for Determining Brain Death in Adults.” Crit Care Med 32, no. 6 (2004): 1284-8.

Shemie, S. D. “Variability of Brain Death Practices.” Crit Care Med 32, no. 12 (2004): 2564-5.

Wang, M. Y., P. Wallace, and J. P. Gruen. “Brain Death Documentation: Analysis and Issues.” Neurosurgery 51, no. 3 (2002): 731-5; discussion 35-6.

Wijdicks, E. F. “Brain Death Worldwide: Accepted Fact but No Global Consensus in Diagnostic Criteria.” Neurology 58, no. 1 (2002): 20-5.

2.2.3 Pediatrics

Ashwal, S. “Clinical Diagnosis and Confirmatory Testing of Brain Death in Children.” In Brain Death, edited by E. F. Wijdicks. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

Banasiak, K. J., and G. Lister. “Brain Death in Children.” Curr Opin Pediatr 15, no. 3 (2003): 288-93.

Brilli, R. J., and D. Bigos. “Apnea Threshold and Pediatric Brain Death.” Crit Care Med 28, no. 4 (2000): 1257.

Chang, M. Y., L. A. McBride, and M. A. Ferguson. “Variability in Brain Death Declaration Practices in Pediatric Head Trauma Patients.” Pediatr Neurosurg 39, no. 1 (2003): 7-9.

Mejia, R. E., and M. M. Pollack. “Variability in Brain Death Determination Practices in Children.” JAMA 274, no. 7 (1995): 550-3.

Shemie, S. D., M. M. Pollack, M. Morioka, and S. Bonner. “Diagnosis of Brain Death in Children.” Lancet Neurol 6, no. 1 (2007): 87-92.

Vardis, R., and M. M. Pollack. “Increased Apnea Threshold in a Pediatric Patient with Suspected Brain Death.” Crit Care Med 26, no. 11 (1998): 1917-9.

2.2.4 Withholding or Withdrawing Life Support and Persistent Vegetative State

Keenan, S. P., K. D. Busche, L. M. Chen, L. McCarthy, K. J. Inman, and W. J. Sibbald. “A Retrospective Review of a Large Cohort of Patients Undergoing the Process of Withholding or Withdrawal of Life Support.” Crit Care Med 25, no. 8 (1997): 1324-31.

Owen, A. M., M. R. Coleman, M. Boly, M. H. Davis, S. Laureys, and J. D. Pickard. “Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative State.” Science 313, no. 5792 (2006): 1402.

———. “Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Covert Awareness in the Vegetative State.” Arch Neurol 64, no. 8 (2007): 1098-1102.

Pellegrino, E. D. “Decisions to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment: A Moral Algorithm,” JAMA, 283, no. 8 (2000): 1065-7.

———. “Futility in Medical Decisions: The Word and the Concept.” HEC Forum 17, no. 4 (2005): 308-18.

Prendergast, T. J., and J. M. Luce. “Increasing Incidence of Withholding and Withdrawal of Life Support from the Critically Ill.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155, no. 1 (1997): 15-20.

Smedira, N. G., B. H. Evans, L. S. Grais, N. H. Cohen, B. Lo, M. Cooke, W. P. Schecter, et al. “Withholding and Withdrawal of Life Support from the Critically Ill.” N Engl J Med 322, no. 5 (1990): 309-15.

2.3 Ethical Debate

Bagheri, A. “Individual Choice in the Definition of Death.” J Med Ethics 33, no. 3 (2007): 146-9.

———. “Criticism of ‘Brain Death' Policy in Japan.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 13, no. 4 (2003): 359-72.

Bartlett, E. T, and S. J. Younger. “Human Death and the Destruction of the Neocortex.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

Bernat, J. L. “The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy.” J Law Med Ethics 34, no. 1 (2006): 35-43.

———. “The Biophilosophical Basis of Whole-Brain Death.” Soc Philos Policy 19, no. 2 (2002): 324-42.

———. “Refinements in the Definition and Criterion of Death.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 83-92. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Bernat, J. L., C. M. Culver, and B. Gert. “On the Definition and Criterion of Death.” Ann Intern Med 94, no. 3 (1981): 389-94.

Browne, A. “Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered.” J Med Ethics 9, no. 1 (1983): 28-31, 44.

Byrne, P. A., S. O'Reilly, and P. M. Quay. “Brain Death—an Opposing Viewpoint.” JAMA 242, no. 18 (1979): 1985-90.

Byrne, P. A., S. O'Reilly, P. M. Quay, and P.W. Salsich. “Brain Death—the Patient, the Physician, and Society.” In Beyond Brain Death: The Case against Brain Based Criteria for Human Death, edited by M. Potts, P. A. Byrne, and R. G. Nigles. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Capron, A. M. “Brain Death—Well Settled Yet Still Unresolved.” N Engl J Med 344, no. 16 (2001): 1244-6.

———. “The Bifurcated Legal Standard for Determining Death: Does It Work?” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 117-36. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

———. “The Report of the President's Commission on the Uniform Determination of Death Act.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

———. “The Purpose of Death: A Reply to Professor Dworkin.” Indiana Law J 48, no. 4 (1973): 640-6.

Capron, A. M., and L. R. Kass. “Statutory Definition of Standards for Determining Human Death—Appraisal and a Proposal.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 121, no. 1 (1972): 87-118.

Charo, R. A. “Dusk, Dawn and Defining Death: Legal Classifications and Biological Categories.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 277-92. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Chiong, W. “Brain Death Without Definitions.” Hastings Cent Rep 35, no. 6 (2005): 20-30.

Cranford, R. “Even the Dead Are Not Terminally Ill Anymore.” Neurology 51, no. 6 (1998): 1530-1.

Dagi, F. T., and R. Kaufman. “Clarifying the Discussion on Brain Death.” J Med Philos 26, no. 5 (2001): 503-25.

Doig, C. J., and E. Burgess. “Brain Death: Resolving Inconsistencies in the Ethical Declaration of Death.” Can J Anaesth 50, no. 7 (2003): 725-31.

DuBois, J. M. “Organ Transplantation: An Ethical Road Map.” Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 2, no. 3 (2002): 413-53.

DuBois, J. M., and E. E. Anderson. “Attitudes Toward Death Criteria and Organ Donation among Healthcare Personnel and the General Public.” Prog Transplant 16, no. 1 (2006): 65-73.

Dworkin, R. B. “Death in Context.” Indiana Law J 48, no. 4 (1973): 623-39.

Eberl, J. T. “A Thomistic Understanding of Human Death.” Bioethics 19, no. 1 (2005): 29-48.

Emanuel, L. L. “Reexamining Death. The Asymptotic Model and a Bounded Zone Definition.” Hastings Cent Rep 25, no. 4 (1995): 27-35.

Furton, E. J. “Brain Death, the Soul, and Organic Life.” Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 2, no. 3 (2002): 455-70.

Gaylin, W. “Harvesting the Dead.” Harpers 249, no. 1492 (1974): 23-28.

Gervais, K. G. Redefining Death. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Haddow, G. “The Phenomenology of Death, Embodiment and Organ Transplantation.” Sociol Health Illn 27, no. 1 (2005): 92-113.

Halevy, A., and B. Brody. “Brain Death: Reconciling Definitions, Criteria, and Tests.” Ann Intern Med 119, no. 6 (1993): 519-25.

Jonas, H. “Against the Stream.” In Philosophical Essays: From Ancient Creed to Technological Man. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974.

Kass, L. R. “Death as an Event: A Commentary on Robert Morison.” Science 173, no. 998 (1971): 698-702.

Korein, J. “The Problem of Brain Death: Development and History.” Ann NY Acad Sci 315 (1978): 19-38.

Korein, J., and C. Machado. “Brain Death: Updating a Valid Concept for 2004.” Adv Exp Med Biol 550 (2004): 1-14.

Lizza, J. P. “The Conceptual Basis for Brain Death Revisited: Loss of Organic Integration or Loss of Consciousness?” Adv Exp Med Biol 550 (2004): 51-9.

———. Persons, Humanity, and the Definition of Death. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

May, W. “Attitudes Toward the Newly Dead.” Stud Hastings Cent 1, no. 1 (1973): 3-13.

Meilaender, G. “Terra Es Animata: On Having a Life.” Hastings Cent Rep 23, no. 4 (1993): 25-32.

Morioka, M. “Reconsidering Brain Death: A Lesson from Japan 's Fifteen Years of Experience.” Hastings Cent Rep 31, no. 4 (2001): 41-6.

Morison, R. S. “Death: Process or Event?” Science 173, no. 998 (1971): 694-8.

Nigles, R. G. “Organ Transplantation, Brain Death, and the Slippery Slope: A Neurosurgeon's Perspective.” In Beyond Brain Death: The Case against Brain Based Criteria for Human Death, edited by M. Potts, P. A. Byrne, and R. G. Nigles. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Pallis, C. “On the Brainstem Criterion of Death.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 93-100. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

———. “Further Thoughts on Brainstem Death.” Anaesth Intensive Care 23, no. 1 (1995): 20-3.

Pallis, C., and D. H. Harley. ABC of Brainstem Death. Second ed. London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1996.

Potts, M. “A Requiem for Whole Brain Death: A Response to D. Alan Shewmon's ‘The Brain and Somatic Integration'.” J Med Philos 26, no. 5 (2001): 479-91.

Ramsey, P. The Patient as Person. Second ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Rosen, N. “A Fresh Perspective on PVS and Brain Death.” Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Washington, DC, 2007.

Seifert, J. “Brain Death and Euthanasia.” In Beyond Brain Death: The Case against Brain Based Criteria for Human Death, edited by M. Potts, P. A. Byrne, and R. G. Nigles. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Shewmon, D. A. “The Brain and Somatic Integration: Insights into the Standard Biological Rationale for Equating ‘Brain Death' with Death.” J Med Philos 26, no. 5 (2001): 457-78.

———. “Spinal Shock and ‘Brain Death': Somatic Pathophysiological Equivalence and Implications for the Integrative-Unity Rationale.” Spinal Cord 37, no. 5 (1999): 313-24.

———. “Chronic ‘Brain Death': Meta-Analysis and Conceptual Consequences.” Neurology 51, no. 6 (1998): 1538-45.

———. “Recovery from ‘Brain Death': A Neurologist's Apologia.” Linacre Q 64, no. 1 (1997): 30-96.

Siminoff, L. A., C. Burant, and S. J. Youngner. “Death and Organ Procurement: Public Beliefs and Attitudes.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 14, no. 3 (2004): 217-34.

Smith, D. R. “Legal Issues Leading to the Notion of Neocortical Death.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

Spike, J. “Brain Death, Pregnancy, and Posthumous Motherhood.” J Clin Ethics 10, no. 1 (1999): 57-65.

Spike, J., and J. Greenlaw. “Ethics Consultation: Persistent Brain Death and Religion: Must a Person Believe in Death to Die?” J Law Med Ethics 23, no. 3 (1995): 291-4.

Veatch, R. M. “The Death of Whole-Brain Death: The Plague of the Disaggregators, Somaticists, and Mentalists.” J Med Philos 30, no. 4 (2005): 353-78.

———. “The Conscience Clause: How Much Individual Choice in Defining Death Can Our Society Tolerate?” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 137-60. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

———. “The Impending Collapse of the Whole-Brain Definition of Death.” Hastings Cent Rep 23, no. 4 (1993): 18-24.

———. “Brain Death and Slippery Slopes.” J Clin Ethics 3, no. 3 (1992): 181-7.

White, P. D. “Should the Law Define Death? — A Genuine Question.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner, 101-09. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

Wijdicks, E. F., and J. L. Bernat. “Chronic ‘Brain Death': Meta-Analysis and Conceptual Consequences.” Neurology 53, no. 6 (1999): 1369-70; Author Reply 71-2.

Wikler, D., and A. J. Weisbard. “Appropriate Confusion over ‘Brain Death'.” JAMA 261, no. 15 (1989): 2246.

Youngner, S. J., C. S. Landefeld, C. J. Coulton, B. W. Juknialis, and M. Leary. “‘Brain Death' and Organ Retrieval. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge and Concepts among Health Professionals.” JAMA 261, no. 15 (1989): 2205-10.

Zamperetti, N., R. Bellomo, C. A. Defanti, and N. Latronico. “Irreversible Apnoeic Coma 35 Years Later. Towards a More Rigorous Definition of Brain Death?” Intensive Care Med 30, no. 9 (2004): 1715-22.

Zaner, R. M. “Brains and Persons: A Critique of Veatch's View.” In Death: Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by R. M. Zaner, 187-97. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

3 Critical Literature: Donation after Cardiac Death

3.1 Law, Policy, and History

DeVita, M. A., and J. V. Snyder. “Development of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Policy for the Care of Terminally Ill Patients Who May Become Organ Donors after Death Following the Removal of Life Support.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 131-43.

DeVita, M. A., J. V. Snyder, and A. Grenvik. “History of Organ Donation by Patients with Cardiac Death.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 113-29.

Zawistowski, C. A., and M. A. DeVita. “Non-Heartbeating Organ Donation: A Review.” J Intensive Care Med 18, no. 4 (2003): 189-97.

3.2 Clinical Guidelines, Practice, and Research

Abt, P. L., N. M. Desai, M. D. Crawford, L. M. Forman, J. W. Markmann, K. M. Olthoff, and J. F. Markmann. “Survival Following Liver Transplantation from Non-Heart-Beating Donors.” Ann Surg 239, no. 1 (2004): 87-92.

Boucek, M. M., C. Mashburn, S. M. Dunn, R. Frizell, L. Edwards, B. Pietra, and D. Campbell. “Pediatric Heart Transplantation after Declaration of Cardiocirculatory Death.” N Engl J Med 359, no. 7 (2008): 709-14.

Cooper, J. T., L. T. Chin, N. R. Krieger, L. A. Fernandez, D. P. Foley, Y. T. Becker, J. S. Odorico, S. J. Knechtle, M. Kalayoglu, H. W. Sollinger, and A. M. D'Alessandro. “Donation after Cardiac Death: The University of Wisconsin Experience with Renal Transplantation.” Am J Transplant 4, no. 9 (2004): 1490-4.

D'Alessandro, A. M., L. A. Fernandez, L. T. Chin, B. D. Shames, N. A. Turgeon, D. L. Scott, A. Di Carlo, et al. “Donation after Cardiac Death: The University of Wisconsin Experience.” Ann Transplant 9, no. 1 (2004): 68-71.

Doshi, M. D., and L. G. Hunsicker. “Short- and Long-Term Outcomes with the Use of Kidneys and Livers Donated after Cardiac Death.” Am J Transplant 7, no. 1 (2007): 122-9.

Foley, D. P., L. A. Fernandez, G. Leverson, L. T. Chin, N. Krieger, J. T. Cooper, B. D. Shames, et al. “Donation after Cardiac Death: The University of Wisconsin Experience with Liver Transplantation.” Ann Surg 242, no. 5 (2005): 724-31.

Kelso, C. M., L. J. Lyckholm, P. J. Coyne, and T. J. Smith. “Palliative Care Consultation in the Process of Organ Donation after Cardiac Death.” J Palliat Med 10, no. 1 (2007): 118-26.

Lewis, J., J. Peltier, H. Nelson, W. Snyder, K. Schneider, D. Steinberger, M. Anderson, et al. “Development of the University of Wisconsin Donation after Cardiac Death Evaluation Tool.” Prog Transplant 13, no. 4 (2003): 265-73.

3.3 Ethical Debate

Aulisio, M. P., M. Devita, and D. Luebke. “Taking Values Seriously: Ethical Challenges in Organ Donation and Transplantation for Critical Care Professionals.” Crit Care Med 35, no. 2 Suppl (2007): S95-101.

Bernat, J. L. “The Boundaries of Organ Donation after Circulatory Death.” N Engl J Med 359, no. 7 (2008): 669-71.

———. “Are Organ Donors after Cardiac Death Really Dead?” J Clin Ethics 17, no. 2 (2006): 122-32.

Campbell, M. L., and L. J. Weber. “Procuring Organs from a Non-Heart-Beating Cadaver: Commentary on a Case Report.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 5, no. 1 (1995): 35-42; discussion 43-9.

Caplan, A. L. “The Telltale Heart: Public Policy and the Utilization of Non-Heart-Beating Donors.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 251-62.

DeVita, M. A., J. V. Snyder, R. M. Arnold, and L. A. Siminoff. “Observations of Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment from Patients Who Became Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donors.” Crit Care Med 28, no. 6 (2000): 1709-12.

DeVita, M. A., R. Vukmir, J. V. Snyder, and C. Graziano. “Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Reply to Campbell and Weber.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 5, no. 1 (1995): 43-9.

Doig, C. J., and G. Rocker. “Retrieving Organs from Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donors: A Review of Medical and Ethical Issues.” Can J Anaesth 50, no. 10 (2003): 1069-76.

DuBois, J. M. “Is Organ Procurement Causing the Death of Patients?” Issues Law Med 18, no. 1 (2002): 21-41.

———. “Intention, Action, and the Dead Donor Rule: Commentary on Spike.” J Clin Ethics 11, no. 1 (2000): 78-84; discussion 92-3.

Lynn, J. “Are the Patients Who Become Organ Donors Under the Pittsburgh Protocol for ‘Non-Heart-Beating Donors' Really Dead?” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 167-78.

Lynn, J., and R. Cranford. “The Persisting Perplexities in the Determination of Death.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 101-14. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Mandell, M. S., S. Zamudio, D. Seem, L. J. McGaw, G. Wood, P. Liehr, A. Ethier, and A. M. D'Alessandro. “National Evaluation of Healthcare Provider Attitudes Toward Organ Donation after Cardiac Death.” Crit Care Med 34, no. 12 (2006): 2952-8.

Robertson, J. A. “Policy Issues in a Non-Heart-Beating Donor Protocol.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 241-50.

Solomon, M. Z. “Donation after Cardiac Death: Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation Deserves a Green Light and Hospital Oversight.” Anesthesiology 98, no. 3 (2003): 601-2.

Spike, J. “Controlled NHBD Protocol for a Fully Conscious Person: When Death Is Intended as an End in Itself and It Has Its Own End.” J Clin Ethics 11, no. 1 (2000): 73-7.

Veatch, R. M. “Donating Hearts after Cardiac Death ? Reversing the Irreversible.” N Engl J Med 359, no. 7 (2008): 672-3.

Van Norman, G. A. “Another Matter of Life and Death: What Every Anesthesiologist Should Know About the Ethical, Legal, and Policy Implications of the Non-Heart-Beating Cadaver Organ Donor.” Anesthesiology 98, no. 3 (2003): 763-73.

Youngner, S. J., R. M. Arnold, and M. A. DeVita. “When Is ‘Dead'?” Hastings Cent Rep 29, no. 6 (1999): 14-21.

Zamperetti, N., R. Bellomo, and C. Ronco. “Defining Death in Non-Heart Beating Organ Donors.” J Med Ethics 29, no. 3 (2003): 182-5.

4 Critical Literature: The Dead Donor Rule

Arnold, R. M., and S. J. Youngner. “The Dead Donor Rule: Should We Stretch It, Bend It, or Abandon It?” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 3, no. 2 (1993): 263-78.

Campbell, C. S. “Harvesting the Living? Separating ‘Brain Death' and Organ Transplantation.” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 14, no. 3 (2004): 301-18.

Crowley-Matoka, M., and R. M. Arnold. “The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care...And How Much Should We Care?” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 14, no. 3 (2004): 319-32.

Fost, N. “Reconsidering the Dead Donor Rule: Is It Important That Organ Donors Be Dead?” Kennedy Inst Ethics J 14, no. 3 (2004): 249-60.

———. “The Unimportance of Death.” In The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies, edited by S. J. Youngner, R. M. Arnold, and R. Schapiro, 161-78. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Kerridge, I. H., P. Saul, M. Lowe, J. McPhee, and D. Williams. “Death, Dying and Donation: Organ Transplantation and the Diagnosis of Death.” J Med Ethics 28, no. 2 (2002): 89-94.

Menikoff, J. “The Importance of Being Dead: Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation.” Issues Law Med 18, no. 1 (2002): 3-20.

Truog, R. D. “Brain Death—Too Flawed to Endure, Too Ingrained to Abandon.” J Law Med Ethics 35, no. 2 (2007): 273-81.

———. “Is It Time to Abandon Brain Death?” Hastings Cent Rep 27, no. 1 (1997): 29-37.

Truog, R. D., and F. G. Miller. “The Dead Donor Rule and Organ Transplantation.” N Engl J Med 359, no. 7 (2008): 674-5.

Truog, R. D., and W. M. Robinson. “Role of Brain Death and the Dead-Donor Rule in the Ethics of Organ Transplantation.” Crit Care Med 31, no. 9 (2003): 2391-6.

Youngner, S. J., and R. M. Arnold. “Philosophical Debates About the Definition of Death: Who Cares?” J Med Philos 26, no. 5 (2001): 527-37.

 


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