The President's Council on Bioethics click here to skip navigation


Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness

Table of Contents

The President's Council on Bioethics
Washington, D.C.
October 2003


Abraham, C. "Gene Pioneer Urges Human Perfection." Toronto Globe and Mail, 26 October 2002.

American College Health Association. National College Health Assessment: Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2002. Baltimore: American College Health Association, 2002.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision ["DSM-IV-TR"]. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

American Society for Reproductive Medicine (Ethics Committee). "Preconception Gender Selection for Nonmedical Reasons." Fertility and Sterility 75: 5, 2001.

American Society for Reproductive Medicine (Ethics Committee). "Sex Selection and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." Fertility and Sterility 72: 4, 1999.

Angold, A., et al. "Stimulant treatment for children: A community perspective." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39: 975-984, 2000.

Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle. Rhetoric. trans. L. Cooper, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960.

Asakura, A., et al. "Muscle satellite cells are multipotential stem cells that exhibit myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation." Differentiation 68(4-5): 245-253, 2001.

Austad, S. "Adding Years to Life: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 12 December 2002.

Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park, 1814.

Baard, E. "The Guilt-Free Soldier." Village Voice, 28 January 2003.

Barbaresi, W., et al. "How common is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Incidence in a population-based birth cohort in Rochester, Minnesota." Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 156: 217-224, 2002.

Barondes, S. Better Than Prozac: The Future of Psychiatric Drugs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Barton-Davis, E., et al. "Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95(26): 15603-15607, 1998.

Benetos, A., et al. "Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: The gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity." Hypertension 37(2): 381-385, 2001.

Biederman, J., et al. "Pharmacotherapy of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Reduces Risk for Substance Use Disorder." Pediatrics 104: e20, 1999.

Blackburn, E. "Telomere states and cell fates." Nature 408(6808): 53-56, 2000.

Borges, J. "Funes the Memorious" in Ficciones, ed. John Sturrock, 1942 [English translation, Grove Press, 1962; reprinted by Knopf/Everyman, 1993].

Bradley, C. "The Behavior of Children Receiving Benzedrine." American Journal of Psychiatry 94: 577-585, 1937.

Braude, P., et al. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." Nature Review Genetics 3(12): 941-953, December 2002.  (See also erratum, Nature Review Genetics 4(2): 157, February 2003.)

Braun, S. The Science of Happiness: Unlocking the Mysteries of Mood. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Brown, W. "A method for estimating the number of motor units in thenar muscles and the changes in motor unit count with aging." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychology 35: 845-852, 1972.

Cahill, L., et al. "Beta-Adrenergic activation and memory for emotional events." Nature 371: 702-704, 1994.

Castellanos F., et al. "Anatomic brain abnormalities in monozygotic twins discordant for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 160(9): 1693-1696, 2003.

Castellanos, F., et al. "Neuroscience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Search for Endophenotypes." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3: 617-628, 2002.

Cawthon, R., et al. "Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older." Lancet 361(9355): 393-395, 2003.

Chan, A., et al. "Foreign DNA transmission by ICSI: injection of spermatozoa bound with exogenous DNA results in embryonic GFP expression and live rhesus monkey births." Molecular Human Reproduction 6(1): 26-33, 2000.

Cohen, E. "Our Psychotropic Memory." SEED, no. 8, Fall 2003.

Collins, F. "Genetic Enhancements: Current and Future Prospects." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 13 December 2002.

Coyle, J. "Psychotropic drug use in very young children." Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(8): 1059-1060, 2000.

Cuttler, L., et al., "Short stature and growth hormone therapy: a national study of physician recommendation patterns." Journal of the American Medical Association 276: 531-537, 1996.

Davis, D. Genetic Dilemmas: Reproductive Technology, Parental Choices, and Children's Futures. New York: Routledge, 2001.

DeGrandre, R. Ritalin Nation: Rapid-Fire Culture and the Transformation of Human Consciousness. New York: Norton, 1999.

Descartes, R. Discourse on the Method of Conducting One's Reason Well and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, 1637.

Descartes, R. The Passions of the Soul, 1649.

Diller, L. "Prescription Stimulant Use in American Children: Ethical Issues." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 12 December 2002.

Diller, L. Running on Ritalin: A Physician Reflects on Children, Society and Performance on a Pill. New York: Bantam Books, 1998.

Dillin, A., et al. "Rates of behavior and aging specified by mitochondrial function during development." Science 298(5602): 2398-2401, 2002.

Dillin, A., et al., "Timing requirements for insulin/IGF-1 signaling in C. elegans." Science 298(5594): 830-834, 2002.

Dunlop, S., et al. "Pattern Analysis Shows Beneficial Effect of Fluoxetine Treatment in Mild Depression." Psychopharmacology Bulletin 26: 173-180, 1990.

Eberstadt, N. "Choosing the Sex of Children: Demographics." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 17 October 2002.

Eberstadt, M. "Why Ritalin Rules." Policy Review 94, April/May 1999.

Elliott, C. Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream. New York: Norton, 2003.

Enge, M. "Ad Seeks Donor Eggs for $100,000, Possible New High." Chicago Tribune, 10 February 2000.

Eriksson, M., et al. "Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome." Nature 423: 293-298, 2003.

Fletcher, J. "Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report, 10(1): 16, 1980.

Fried, S. "Addicted to Antidepressants? The Controversy Over a Pill Millions of Us Are Taking." Glamour, April 2003.

Fukuyama, F. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.

Gates, D. "The Case of Dr. Strangedrug." Newsweek, 19 June 1993.

German National Ethics Council. Genetic diagnosis before and during pregnancy: opinion. Berlin: Nationaler Ethikrat, 2003.

Glader, P. "From the Maker of Effexor: Campus Forums on Depression." Wall Street Journal, 10 October 2002, p. B1.

Gladwell, M. "The Sporting Scene: Drugstore Athlete." New Yorker, 10 September 2001.

Glass, B. "Science: Endless Horizons or Golden Age?" Science, 171: 23-29, 1971.

Goodman, E. "Matter Over Mind?" Washington Post, 16 November 2002.

Hancock, L. "Mother's Little Helper." Newsweek, 18 March 1996.

Hardin, G. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162: 1243-1248, 1968.

Hawthorne, N. "The Birth-mark," in Nathaniel Hawthorne, Tales and Sketches, ed. R. Pearce. New York: Library of America, 1982. (Originally published in Twice-Told Tales, 1843.)

Healy, D. The Antidepressant Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1997.

Homer, The Odyssey.

Hübner, K., et al. "Derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells." Science 300(5620): 1251-1256, 2003.

Huxley, A. Brave New World, Norwalk, CT: Easton Press, 1978. (First published 1932.)

Hyman, S. "Pediatric Psychopharmacology." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 6 March 2003.

Jonas, H. "The Burden and Blessing of Mortality." Hastings Center Report 22(1): 24-40, January/February 1992.

Juengst, E. "What does enhancement mean?" in E. Parens, ed., Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1998, pp. 29-47.

Kass, L. "Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Human Improvement." Paper prepared for the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 16 January 2003.

Kass, L. "L'Chaim and Its Limits: Why Not Immortality" in Life, Liberty, and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books, 2002.

Kessler, R., et al. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey." Archives of General Psychiatry 52(12): 1048-1060, 1995.

Klam, M. "Experiencing Ecstasy." New York Times Magazine, 21 January 2001.

Klerman, G., et al. "Increasing rates of depression." Journal of the American Medical Association 261(15): 2229-2235, 1989.

Knutson, B., et al. "Selective Alteration of Personality and Social Behavior by Serotonergic Intervention." American Journal of Psychiatry 155: 373-379, 1998.

Kramer, P. "Happiness and Sadness: Depression and the Pharmacological Elevation of Mood." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 12 September 2002.

Kramer, P. Listening to Prozac. Second edition. New York: Penguin, 1997.

Kramer, P. "The Valorization of Sadness: Alienation and the Melancholic Temperament." Hastings Center Report 30(2): 13-18, 2000.

Kulka, R., et al. Trauma and the Vietnam War Generation: Report of Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1990.

Lane, M., et al. "The Serious Search for an Anti-Aging Pill." Scientific American 287(2): 36-41, 2002.

Langer, G. "Use of Anti-Depressants Is a Long-Term Practice."<10 April 2003.

Langreth, R. "Viagra for the Brain." Forbes, 4 February 2002.

Lewis, C.S. The Abolition of Man. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

LeDoux, J. "Emotion, Memory, and the Brain." Scientific American 270, 32-39, 1994.

Liotti, M., et al. "Differential Limbic-Cortical Correlates of Sadness and Anxiety in Healthy Subjects: Implications for Affective Disorders." Biological Psychiatry 48: 30-42, 2000.

Locke, J. Essay Concerning Human Understanding. 1690.

Luria, A. The Mind of a Mnemonist: A little book about a vast memory, trans. L. Solotaroff. New York: Basic Books, 1968.

Mandavilli, A. "Fertility's new frontier takes shape in a test tube." Nature Medicine 9(8): 1095, 2003.

Marshall, E. "Gene Therapy a Suspect in Leukemia-like Disease." Science 298: 34, 2002.

Marshall, E. "Second Child in French Trial is Found to Have Leukemia." Science 299: 320, 2003.

McGaugh, J. "Emotional Activation, Neuromodulatory Systems and Memory" in D. Schacter, et al., eds., Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995, pp. 255-273.

McGaugh, J. "Enhancing Cognitive Performance." Southern California Law Review 65(1): 383-395, 1991.

McGaugh, J. "Memory consolidation and the amygdala: a system perspective." Trends in Neuroscience 25(9): 456-461, 2002.

McGaugh, J. "Remembering and Forgetting: Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 17 October 2002.

McGaugh, J. "Significance and Remembrance: The Role of Neuromodulatory Systems." Psychological Science 1: 15-25, 1990.

McHugh, P., et al. The Perspectives of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1998.

Meilaender, G.  "Why Remember?" First Things No. 135: 20-24, August/September 2003.

Montaigne, M. "That to Philosophize Is to Learn to Die" in The Complete Essays of Michel Montaigne, trans. D. Frame. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965.

Murphy, C., et al. "Genes that act downstream of DAF-16 to influence the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans." Nature 424: 277-283, 2003.

Musaro, A., et al. "Localized Igf-1 transgene expression sustains enlargement and regeneration in senescent skeletal muscle." Nature Genetics 27: 195-200, 2001.

National Human Genome Research Institute. "News Release: Researchers Identify Gene for Premature Aging." Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health (, 16 April 2003.

National Institute of Mental Health. Medication. Washington, D.C.: NIH Publication No. 02-3929, 2002.

National Institute of Mental Health. The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America. Washington, D.C.: NIH Publication No. 01-4584, 2003.

National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Life Sciences and Social Policy. Assessing Biomedical Technologies: An Inquiry into the Nature of the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1975.

National Science Foundation. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2003.

Nestler, E., et al. "Neurobiology of Depression." Neuron 34: 13-25, 2002.

Olshansky, S., et al. "No Truth to the Fountain of Youth." Scientific American, June 2002, pp. 92-95.

Owino, V., et al. "Age-related loss of skeletal muscle function and the ability to express the autocrine form of insulin-like growth factor-1 (MGF) in response to mechanical overload." FEBS Letters 505: 259-263, 2001.

Parens, E., ed. Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1998.

Pinker, S. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Viking, 2002.

Pinker, S. "Human Nature and Its Future." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 6 March 2003.

Pitman, R., et al. "Pilot Study of Secondary Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Propranolol." Biological Psychiatry 51: 189-192, 2002.

Plato. "Symposium," trans. S. Benardete, in The Dialogues of Plato. New York: Bantam Books, 1986.

Powledge, T., and J. Fletcher. "A Report from the Genetics Research Group of Hastings Center Institute of Society, Ethics, and Life Sciences." New England Journal of Medicine 300(4): 168-172, 1979.

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Screening and Counseling for Genetic Conditions: A Report on the Ethical, Social, and Legal Implications of Genetic Screening, Counseling, and Education Programs. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983.

President's Council on Bioethics. Human Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002. Human Cloning and Human Dignity: The Report of the President's Council on Bioethics. New York: PublicAffairs, 2002.

Qu-Peterson, Z., et al. "Identification of a novel population of muscle stem cells in mice: potential for muscle regeneration." Journal of Cell Biology 157(5): 851-864, 2002.

Ramsey, J., et al. "Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study." Experimental Gerontology 35(9-10):1131-1149, 2000.

Rapoport, J., et al. "Dextroamphetamine: its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men." Archives of General Psychiatry 37: 933-943, 1980.

Riddle, M., et al. "Pediatric Psychopharmacology." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42(1): 73-90, 2001.

Rose, S. "'Smart drugs': do they work, are they ethical, will they be legal?" Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3: 975-979, 2002.

Rosenberg, I. "Summary Comments." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: 1231-1233, 1989.

Rosenberg, L. "Brainsick: A Physician's Journey to the Brink." Cerebrum 4: 43-60, 2002.

Roubenoff, R., et al. "Sarcopenia: Current concepts." The Journals of Gerontology, Biological and Medical Sciences, Series A, 55A, M716-M724, 2000.

Rousseau, J.-J. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality (Second Discourse)," trans. R. and J. Masters, in The First and Second Discourses, ed. R. Masters. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964.

Rudman, D., et al. "Effects of human growth hormone in men over sixty years old." New England Journal of Medicine 323: 1-5, 1990.

St. Augustine. The Confessions of St. Augustine, trans. J. Pilkington. Norwalk, CT: Easton Press, 1979.

Sandel, M. "What's Wrong with Enhancement." Paper prepared for the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 12 December 2002.

Santarelli, L., et al. "Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants." Science 301: 805-809, 2003.

Sapolsky, R. "Will We Still Be Sad Fifty Years from Now?" in J. Brockman, ed. The Next Fifty Years: Science in the First Half of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Vintage, 2002.

Schacter, D. "Remembering and Forgetting: Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 17 October 2002.

Schacter, D. The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Schatten, G., "Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Genomics Era." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 13 December 2002.

Science Magazine. "Random Samples." Science 290(5500): 2249, 22 December 2000.

Shakespeare, W. King Henry the Fourth, Part 2.

Shakespeare, W. A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Sheline, Y., et al. "Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93: 3908-3913, 1996.

Silver, L. Remaking Eden. New York:  Avon Books, Inc., 1998.

Simpson, J., et al. "Sex Selection" in C. De Jonge and C. Barratt, eds., Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Current Accomplishments and New Horizons. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 384-396.

Sinsheimer, R., "The Prospect of Designed Genetic Change." Engineering and Science Magazine, California Institute of Technology, April 1969.

Slater, L. "Prozac Mother and Child." New York Times Magazine, 17 October 1999, pp. 15-17.

Smalley, S., et al. "Genetic linkage of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on chromosome 16p13, in a region implicated in autism." American Journal of Human Genetics 71: 959-963, 2002.

Stock, G. Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Sweeney, H.L. "Genetic Enhancement of Muscle." Presentation at the President's Council on Bioethics, Washington, D.C. (, 13 September 2002.

Swift, J. Gulliver's Travels, 1726.

Tsien, J., et al. "Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice." Nature 401: 63-69, 2 September 1999.

Tzankoff, S., et al. "Effect of Muscle Mass on Age-Related BMR Changes." Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 1001-1006, 1977.

United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Methylphenidate/amphetamine yearly production quotas. Washington, D.C.: Department of Justice, 2000.

Vitiello, B. "Psychopharmacology for young children: Clinical needs and research opportunities." Pediatrics 108(4): 983-989, 2001.

Vitiello, B. "Stimulant Treatment for Children: A Community Perspective: Commentary." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39: 992-994, 2000.

Vonnegut, K. "Harrison Bergeron" in Welcome to the Monkey House. New York: Delacorte, 1968.

Wade, N. "Of Smart Mice and an Even Smarter Man." New York Times, 7 September 1999.

Wadman, M. "So You Want a Girl?" Fortune, 9 February 2001.

Weber, M. "Effects of growth hormone on skeletal muscle." Hormone Research 58(3): 43-48, 2002.

Weindruch, R., et al. The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas Publishers, 1998.

Wheeler, T. "Miracle Molecule, 50 Years On." Baltimore Sun, 4 February 2003, p. 8A.

Wilson, J.Q. The Marriage Problem: How Our Culture Has Weakened Families. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Wolterstorff, N. Lament for a Son. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdman's, 1987.

Yesavage, J., et al. "Donepezil and flight simulator performance: effects on retention of complex skills." Neurology 59: 123-125, 9 July 2002.

Zammit, P., et al. "The skeletal muscle satellite cell: stem cell or son of stem cell?" Differentiation 68(4-5): 193-204, 2001.

Zito, J., et al. "Psychotropic Practice Patterns for Youth: A 10-Year Perspective." Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 157: 17-25, 2003.

Zito, J., et al. "Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers." Journal of the American Medical Association 283: 1025-1030, 2000.

Back to Full Document Right Arrow


  - The President's Council on Bioethics -  
Home Site Map Disclaimers Privacy Notice Accessibility NBAC HHS