ATTACHMENT 1

       January, 1950 "Recommendations to NEPA" by the NEPA
                   Medical Advisory Committee
                           RESTRICTED

                               

                               
                 Radiation Biology Relative to

                Nuclear Energy Powered Aircraft

                               
                    Recommendations to NEPA

                               by

              The NEPA Medical Advisory Committee

This document contains information affecting the national defense
of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws,
Title 18 U. S. C., Sections 793 and 794.  Its transmission or the
revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized
person is prohibited by law.


January 5, 1950


                                                NEPA 1254-IER-25


                           RESTRICTED

                           RESTRICTED

                         Membership of

              THE NEPA MEDICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Chairman

    ANDREW H. DOWDY, M.D., Professor of Radiology, University of
California, Los Angeles.

Secretary

    W. A. SELLE, Ph. D., Professor Biophysics, University of
California, Los Angeles.

Members

    RUBERT S. ANDERSON, Ph. D., Professor of Physiology,
University of South Dakota, Vermission.

    SIMEON T. CANTRIL, M. D., Head of Radiology Department,
Tumor Institution, Swedish Hospital, Seattle.

    LAUREN R. DONALDSON, Ph. D., Professor of Biology,
University of Washington, Seattle.

    ROBLEY D. EVANS, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, M.I.T.,
Cambridge, Mass.

    TITUS C. EVANS, Ph. D., Professor of Experimental Radiation,
University of Iowa, Iowa City.

    G. FAILLA, D. Sc., Professor of Radiology (Physics),
Radiological Research Laboratory, Columbia University, New York
City.

    HYMER L. FRIEDELL, M. D., Professor of Radiology, University
Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio.

    R. R. NEWELL, M. D., Professor of Radiology, University of
California Hospital, San Francisco.

    RAYMOND E. ZIRKLE, Ph. D., Professor, Institute of
Radiobiology and Biophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago.

Consultant Members

    AUSTIN, M. BRUSE, M. D., Director of Biology, Argonne
National Laboratory, Chicago.

    JOSEPH G. HAMILTON, M. D., Director, Radiation Laboratory,
University of California, Berkeley.

    ALEXANDER HOLLAENDER, Ph. D., Director of Biology, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory.

    A. H. HOLLAND, Jr., M. D., Medical Advisor, Atomic Energy
Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    WRIGHT LANGHAM, Ph. D., Director, Radiology Research
Laboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N. M.

    L. F. NIMS, Ph. D., Director of Biology, Brookhaven National
Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N. Y.

    SHIELDS, WARREN, M. D., Director of Biology and Medicine,
Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C.

    STAFFORD L. WARREN, M. D., Dean of Medical School and
Director of atomic Energy Project, University of California, Los
Angeles.

iii

                           RESTRICTED
                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                            Page

Membership of the NEPA Medical Advisory Committee             iii

Foreward                                                      vii

Introduction                                                  1-2

Recommended Fields of Research with Priority                    3
Assignments Based on Immediate Importance to NEPA

Brief Discussion of Individual Programs with                 4-14
Estimated Budgetary Needs

I.   Human Experimentation                                      4

II.  Physical Fitness Following Total Body                      5
    Exposure to Penetrating Radiations

III. Long Term Effects of Acute and Intermittent Body           6
    Exposures to Ionizing Radiations

IV.  Psychomotor Performance of Patients Following              7
    Total Body Exposure to Penetrating Radiations

V.   Analytical Calculation of Absorption and                   8
    Distribution of Energy in an Irradiated Medium
    Simulating the Human Body

VI.  Collection, Compilation, and Publication of                9
    Data on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations
    Pertinent to Research Problems

VII. Studies of Biological Additivity of Ionizing              10
    Radiations Having Different Specific Ionizations

VIII. Methods for Detecting the Degree of Sensitivity          11
     of Individuals to Radiation Exposure

IX.  A Study of Methods for Preventing and Counteracting       12
    Radiation Effects

X.   Psychological Problem of Crew Selection Relative to       13
    Radiation Hazards

XI.  General Supervision and Coordination of Research          14

Breakdown Showing How Work Would Be Distributed Among the      15
Various Groups or Agencies

Recapitalization --- Consolidated, Summarized                  16
Recommendations with Budget

Appendix                                                       17

v

                            FOREWORD

    The NEPA Division of the Fairchild Engine and Airplane
Corporation, operating under the joint sponsorship of the United
States Air Force and the United States Atomic Energy Commission,
and working cooperatively with the National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics, has been given the responsibility of conducting
work necessary for the assessment of the practicality of using
nuclear energy to propel military aircraft.

    For many reasons it is desirable that the aircraft carry a
crew.  This implies that the reactor will be surrounded with
shielding adequate to protect the crew against radiations
escaping from the reactor.  The weight of this shielding is
large, and is the most critical item of weight in the design of
the aircraft: the shield weight must therefore be known with high
relative accuracy.  Since the weight of the shield becomes
greater the more completely it stops the radiations, it is
necessary to determine the amount of radiation a human can
reasonably tolerate in a given number of doses, at given
repetition frequencies, and at given intensities, so that shield
weights can be minimized.  This knowledge is only partially
available.

    In order to obtain the best possible advice and information
in this field the NEPA Project has formed the NEPA Medical
Advisory Committee, the members of which are nationally
recognized authorities.  This report, containing recommendations
for the necessary biomedical work relative to nuclear powered
aircraft, is the second from the Committee.  An earlier report
summarized the available data relative to radiation biology.

vii

                          INTRODUCTION

    In order to fulfill its assignment, NEPA realized the
important relationship between the amount of total body exposure
humans could endure from penetrating ionizing radiations and the
feasibility and practicability of constructing and operating a
nuclear energy powered aircraft.  Toward this end, specific
information of the following was sought:

    (1)  The total amounts of radiation the human body can be
         subjected to within a twelve to twenty-four hour period
         without producing any appreciably demonstrable,
         immediate or delayed effects.

    (2)  Whether such amounts of radiation as may be considered
         permissible for military purposes would have any
         deleterious effects upon the skill, judgment, or
         general performance of the crew necessary to operate
         the aircraft and carry out the desired mission.

    (3)  Provided a permissible level of radiation may be agreed
         upon, how many such exposures can be tolerated by the
         crew,and how frequent may the exposures be?

    At its initial meeting, held in Chicago on 23 June 1948, the
    Medical Advisory Committee was charged by NEPA with two main
    responsibilities:

    (1)  To advise NEPA as early as possible of the effects to
         be expected from various levels of radiation exposure
         under specific conditions according to the best
         presently available data.

    (2)  To recommend to NEPA specific areas of research in the
         field of radiation biology where investigations are now
         being conducted or should be conducted in order to more
         clearly define the effects of various exposures and
         conditions.

    With the submission of the "TABULATION OF AVAILABLE DATA
RELATIVE TO RADIATION BIOLOGY," in June 1949, the NEPA Medical
Advisory Committee has discharged its first responsibility.  The
present report concerns itself with the second obligation,
namely, recommendations on research in radiation biology relative
to nuclear energy powered aircraft.

    Were we to consider radiation biology static and additional
research likely to be sterile, further work would be useless, and
NEPA would be forced to proceed without additional biological
information.  This would be significantly true if there were
unanimous agreement that 25 to 50 r per single exposure is
permissible, and that such single exposures could be repeated
every two to four weeks for an accumulated total of 100 to 150 r.
Few authorities will agree that the field is sterile, and many
would hesitate to agree to such an accumulated total dose.  It is
the opinion of the Medical Advisory Committee that neither
assumption is valid.

    Progress in radiation biological research is indeed hopeful,
and it is not outside the realm of possibility that effective and
practical prophylactic measures may be discovered within two to
four years which will increase the tolerance of the human body to
ionizing and penetrating radiations by a factor of two.  Such
progress, if forthcoming, would be of distinct value to the NEPA
program.

    The Medical Advisory Committee is cognizant of the extensive
amount of research

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NEPA-1019-IER-17
now being conducted by AEC and other agencies in radiation
biology, much of which is of direct interest to NEPA.  In its
discussions, the committee has considered in the overall picture,
insofar as it can, the magnitude and diversity of the many
problems relative to funds, space, and available scientific
personnel.  Its deliberations have resulted in the listing of ten
specific areas of research which are significant to the NEPA
Project.  To each of these ten areas it has assigned a priority.
Those priorities must not be misconstrued as a reflection of the
Committee's impression of overall importance, but rather as its
interpretation of the specific importance and/or urgency of each
category to NEPA per se.

    Many agencies of AEC, the Armed Forces, and Civilian Defense
are interested in the information which will result from research
in the ten areas enumerated.  It should be pointed out that each
agency or project may have specific problems which make its task
somewhat unique.  It is evident that each will profit from
research in radiation biology in proportion to the extent to
which its specific needs are fulfilled.  Toward this objective,
the Committee's recommendations and priorities are directed.

    Having been assigned the responsibility of studying the
feasibility of developing, and the actual development of a
nuclear energy powered aircraft, NEPA must assume the
responsibility of procuring all radiation biology data pertinent
to its needs.  Where such information is lacking or incomplete,
supplementary specific research must be initiated through the
aegis of NEPA and/or through the offices of other agencies.  This
may be accomplished by the following procedures:

    (1)  Constant, personal contact with major research
         laboratories in the field of radiation biology where
         available data are being evaluated, and current
         research is being conducted.

    (2)  Close contact with the Division of Biology and Medicine
         of the Atomic Energy Commission with the hope that
         protocols for future research, in existing
         laboratories, may by appropriate modification
         facilitate the solution of specific NEPA problems.  The
         Committee feels that this may prove to be the most
         efficacious and economical method with respect to
         manpower, facilities, and funds, whenever it is
         practicable.

    (3)  However, neither current research nor the
         supplementation of proposed research can be expected to
         fulfill all the unique biological problems of NEPA.  To
         overcome this deficiency, NEPA should budget such sums
         of money as are necessary to initiate, and financially
         support, directed research in special problems in
         laboratories which may be willing to cooperate.

                             Respectfully submitted,

                             NEPA MEDICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
                             Andrew H. Dowdy, M. D., Chairman


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    RECOMMENDED FIELDS OF RESEARCH WITH PRIORITY ASSIGNMENTS
             BASED ON IMMEDIATE IMPORTANCE TO NEPA

                                                        Priority

I.   Human Experimentation.                                     A

II.  Physical Fitness Following Total Body                      A
    Exposure to Penetrating Radiations.

III. Evaluation of Long Term Effects of Acute and               A
    Intermittent body Exposures to Ionizing Radiations.

IV.  Psychomotor Performance of Patients Following              A
    Total Body Exposure to Penetrating Radiations.

V.   Analytical Calculation of Absorption and                   A
    Distribution of Energy in an Irradiated Medium
    Simulating the Human Body.

VI.  Collection, Compilation, and Publication of                B
    Data on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations.

VII. Studies of Biological Additivity of Ionizing               B
    Radiations Having Different Specific Ionizations.

VIII. Study of Methods for Detecting the Degree of Sensitivity  C
     of Individuals to Radiation Exposures.

IX.  Study of Methods of Preventing and Counteracting           C
    Radiation Effects.

X.   Psychological Problem of Crew Selection Relative to        D
    Radiation Hazards.

XI.  General Supervision and Coordination of Research.


3

BRIEF DISCUSSION OF INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS WITH ESTIMATED BUDGETARY
                             NEEDS
           (See Appendix for detailed consideration)

            I.  HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION ("A" PRIORITY)

    The NEPA Medical Advisory Committee is attempting to
determine what will happen to humans exposed at infrequent times
to amounts of radiations which are higher than those accepted as
permissible for peace time operations.  The Committee, with the
exception of one member, feels that such information cannot be
obtained by animal experiments nor by clinical observations and
that the information sought is sufficiently important to justify
the use of humans as experimental subjects.  The Committee
therefore recommends, that the Armed services arrange for and
conduct unclassified experiments on man which will make possible
the accurate prediction of biological changes resulting from
known levels of radiation exposure.  These experiments (described
in detail in the Appendix) are to be carried out in accordance
with the principles laid down by the Judicial Council of the AMA
(1946), namely, that all subjects used must be volunteers, that
hazards of each experiment must be ascertained by previous
experiments on animals, and that the experiments must be
performed under proper medical protection and management.
Certain results of the study would probably not be obtained until
after the end of the feasibility and development periods of the
Project; however, the experiments in general would yield
immediate information of considerable value in determining
operational routines and tactical uses of aircraft powered by
nuclear energy.  The results obviously would also be of great
value to other agencies of the Military Establishment.

    Estimated annual cost:  $178,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  20 years.

    Estimated initial expense for building to house special
radiation equipment and personnel:  if constructed, $200,000:  if
remodeled, $75,000.

    Where work could be done:  The Committee is not in a
position to make recommendations as to where these tests can be
conducted other than that they should be carried out at some
federal, state, or Armed Services prison, where life prisoners
are incarcerated and where arrangements can be made with the
prison authorities to cooperate in the experiment.  The selection
of the prison is a matter for top military consideration.
Continued cooperation of the prison staff and prisoners for a
matter of many years will be required.

    NEPA should have available $100,000 annually for equipment,
expendable material, and operating expenses.  The Armed Services
should supply personnel, salaries of which will amount to about
$78,000 annually, and buildings.


4

     II.  PHYSICAL FITNESS FOLLOWING TOTAL BODY EXPOSURE TO
                          PENETRATING
                   RADIATIONS ("A" PRIORITY)

    The objectives of this study is to establish, by means of
animal experiments, levels of whole body irradiation which would
impair the skilled performance of personnel of the crew.  The
chief question to be answered is:  What level of radiation can be
tolerated by the crew for 24 hours without causing diminution of
mental acuity, or the development of excessive and potentially
disabling fatigue?

    It is recommended that NEPA obtain a high priority for this
research so that work can go forward by competent investigators
with ample support.  It is also recommended that there be close
liaison between workers of the group using animals, and those of
other groups studying human subjects.  It is further recommended
that all experiments involving human subjects, except those
receiving specific therapeutic radiation, be under the
supervision of a single committee.

    Estimated annual cost:  $100,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  3 years.

    Work might be done at existing civilian and governmental
laboratories, particularly at the Naval Radiological Defense
Laboratory, San Francisco, and the School of Aviation Medicine,
Randolph Air Force Base, Texas.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event
work is not undertaken by other agencies:  $100,000.

    The proposed program should be initiated at once.

5

  III.  LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND INTERMITTENT TOTAL BODY
        EXPOSURES TO IONIZING RADIATIONS ("A" PRIORITY)

    This research is concerned with the effects of acute, semi-
acute, and chronic radiation exposure of laboratory animals kept
under close observation for the remainder of their life following
irradiation.  It is imperative, if the necessary range of
information is to be obtained, that such experiments be carried
out on species having a long life span, such as dogs, and on
short lived species, such as mice or rats.  The results to be
obtained will be of great value not only to NEPA, but also to
various branches of the Armed Services, and to Civilian Defense.
The Committee recommends that NEPA take the initiative in
activating longevity experiments of the type described as soon as
possible, either under its own auspices, or under other auspices.

    Estimated annual cost after the first year:  $500,000.

    Estimated additional cost of construction of necessary
buildings:  $200,000 - $600,000.

    Estimated cost first year:  $700,000 to $1,100,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  5 to 10 years depending upon
species used.

    Where work might be done:  University of Rochester, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, National
Institute of Health, Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

    It is understood that the Division of Biology and Medicine
of the Atomic Energy Commission has such a program under
consideration at this time.

    NEPA should have available $100,000 to $200,000 annually in
the event that the dosage ranges of interest to the Project are
not covered by other agencies prosecuting such studies.

    Because of the long range aspect of the program, the
experiment should be initiated at the earliest possible date.

6

 IV.  PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE OF PATIENTS FOLLOWING TOTAL BODY
       EXPOSURE TO PENETRATING RADIATIONS ("A" PRIORITY)

    The purpose of this study is to determine possible changes
in psychomotor performance resulting from total body and large
body volume irradiation from external, and/or internal sources in
patients treated with dosages of ionizing radiation of interest
to the NEPA Project.  Patients might be suitable subjects
provided they are being irradiation in the way needed by the
Project and provided they are not seriously debilitated by the
diseases for which they are being treated.

    Whole body dosages in the range of 10 to 100 roentgens,
given over periods of from 30 minutes to several days, are
recommended.  Isotopes such as p32, which are semi-uniformly
distributed throughout the body, would be suitable as internal
emitters.  Deterioration of psychomotor performance resulting
from varying levels of radiation will be based on:  reaction
time, eye-hand-foot coordination, selected arithmetical
calculations, and other tests available to experimental
psychologists.

    Estimated cost:     High estimate:  $68,000.

                        Low estimate:  $48,000.

                        If work is done at existing governmental
                        installations $15,000 to $25,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  2 years or longer.

    Where work might be done:  various universities and
governmental hospitals, and the School of Aviation Medicine,
Randolph Air Force Base, Texas.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event
work is not undertaken by other agencies:  $68,000, if done by
civilian contractors:  $25,000, if done at governmental
installations.

    The program should be activated as soon as possible.

7

 V.  ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF ABSORPTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF
    ENERGY IN AN IRRADIATED MEDIUM SIMULATING THE HUMAN BODY
                         ("A" PRIORITY)

    Since this problem is being considered by other agencies
already making calculations of the type wanted by NEPA and
related groups, the Committee offers no specific recommendation
that this work be actively prosecuted by NEPA.  The Committee,
however, recommends that some qualified individual, well informed
of the needs of NEPA and reactor groups in general, contact and
collaborate with investigators in Oak Ridge and in Harwell,
England, doing calculations of the type sought, and obtain their
results.  It is also recommended that compilation of
bibliographic data on this subject be maintained and is made
available to those concerned.

    Estimated cost:  none.  (Work will be completed by other
agencies)

    Amount per annum NEPA should have for this program:  none;
individual who is to contact and collaborate with other agencies
carrying out the work is already employed by NEPA.


8

   VI.  COLLECTION, COMPILATION, AND PUBLICATION OF DATA ON
    BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATIONS PERTINENT TO
                REACTOR PROBLEMS ("B" PRIORITY)

    This recommendation provides for a thorough and continuous
survey of biological literature relative to penetrating ionizing
radiations.  Data are to be collected, abstracted, and filed in a
systematic manner.  Such tabulated, catalogued data are to be
available to all qualified workers.  Reports involving radiation
problems will be prepared when circumstances warrant.  Revision
of the Project's Handbook -- "Tabulation of Available Data
Relative to Radiation Biology" -- will be made from time to time,
depending upon the volume and significance of additional data
pertinent to the Project.

    Estimated annual expenditure:  $15,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  duration of Project.

    Program could be carried out at the University of
California, Los Angeles.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available for this
program:  $15,000.

    Funds for this program should be allocated at once in order
to continue the survey of literature already initiated.

9

 VII.  STUDIES OF BIOLOGICAL ADDITIVITY OF IONIZING RADIATIONS
      HAVING DIFFERENT SPECIFIC IONIZATIONS ("B" PRIORITY)

    The question is: are the two radiations of chief concern to
NEPA (gamma rays and fast neutrons) totally additive in their
effects under operational conditions, and if not, to what extent
are they additive?  Emphasis will be placed on exposures which
last from a few hours to 24 hours.  The effect of slow neutrons
can be estimated from Monte Carlo calculations on radiobiological
results on gammas and fast neutrons.

    Estimated annual cost:  $33,000; the first year would
require $43,000.

    Estimated time:  3 to 5 years.

    Work could be done at some governmental installation,
particularly at Argonne National Laboratory, where suitable
buildings and gamma ray and fast neutron sources are available.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event
work is not undertaken by other agencies: $43,000 for the first
year; $33,000 thereafter.

    Work should be undertaken as soon as possible.

10

    VIII.  METHODS FOR DETECTING THE DEGREE OF SENSITIVITY
      OF INDIVIDUALS TO RADIATION EXPOSURES ("C" PRIORITY)

    It is important to ascertain if individuals differ markedly
in their sensitivity to whole body irradiation.  If they do, the
development of methods permitting the selection of crew members
who are relatively resistant to radiations and the elimination of
those of greater sensitivity is highly desirable to the Project.
The chief purpose of the recommended research is to determine
whether the relative radiation sensitivity of an individual can
be determined prior to exposure to ionizing radiations.  Failing
this, it is possible that the degree of radiation sensitivity of
individuals can be determined by a small test exposure.  The
proposed research will be separated into two categories -- one
clinical; the other, experimental.  Clinical studies will be done
in three geographically separated areas where large numbers of
patients are treated with deep X-ray therapy and where treatment
can be uniform and well controlled.  Detailed information, based
on a questionnaire prepared by an advisory committee, will be
obtained from patients prior to exposure.  Following treatment
the patients will be observed for a year or more.  Attempts will
be made to determine whether any correlation exists between the
degree of reaction and the factors covered by the questionnaire,
and/or results of specific tests.  Experimental studies in
animals may make it possible to determine more accurately the
degree of radiation sensitivity of various tissues than is
possible under clinical conditions; as well as to determine
whether any relation exists between certain reactions in
superficial tissues resulting from small localized exp______ and
the degree of general reaction from various doses of whole body
irradiation.

    Estimated annual expenditure:  $90,000.

    Estimated time for completion:  3 to 5 years.

    Where work might be done:  Clinical Phase:  Columbia
University, Michael Reese Hospital, University of California,
Swedish Hospital in Seattle; Experimental Phase; A national
laboratory; University of Iowa.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event the
work is not undertaken by other agencies:  $90,000.

    The program should be initiated as soon as possible.

11

   IX.  A STUDY OF METHODS FOR PREVENTING AND COUNTERACTING
                RADIATION EFFECTS ("C" PRIORITY)

    The obvious purpose of this research is to discover methods
for increasing the tolerance of human subjects to ionizing
radiations.  Unlike other researches recommended, this particular
study has no definable method of approach which is admittedly
superior to others.  Because of the large number of compounds and
conditions which may be tested, the Committee recommends that
rather than attempt to formulate a complete program from the top,
various laboratories and investigators be permitted to work
independently of one another.

    To aid in the accomplishment of the general objectives, a
flexible program would be set up to assist work already in
progress and to initiate additional projects elsewhere as
favorable conditions arise.  Furthermore, NEPA should arrange to
determine the effectiveness of the more promising chemical agents
in relation to the work of other research categories,
particularly to physical fitness and longevity.

    Estimated annual cost:  $75,000.

    Estimated time:  5 years.

    Where work could be done:  Various governmental and
university laboratories already conducting such experiments.

    Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event
work is not undertaken by other agencies:  $75,000.

    Such work need not be undertaken at once unless other
agencies fail to adequately support this field of investigation.
NEPA should however maintain close contact with the major workers
in the field and should be able to aid financially at any time,
groups which have promising programs, or to initiate new
programs.

12


     X.  PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM OF CREW SELECTION RELATIVE
              TO RADIATION HAZARDS ("D" PRIORITY)

    The research recommended for this controversial subject is
concerned with:

    A.   Determination of specific factors associated with
radiation hazards which might engender anxiety.  This can be
accomplished by planned personal interviews with workers at
reactor and cyclotron sites, and evaluation of data obtained from
carefully prepared questionnaires submitted to such personnel.

    Estimated cost of this part:  $6,000 per year.
    Estimated time for completion:  one year.
    Where work might be done:  Some AEC installation, such as
Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    B.   Influence of special stress (anxiety from irradiation)
on performance.  This can be tested by simulating radiation
generators and challenging prospective crew members under sham
conditions where radiations are known to exist.  Anxiety can be
measured by a variety of techniques available to psychologists.

    Estimated cost of this part:  $20,000 per year.
    Estimated time for completion:  1 year.
    Where work might be done:  Some AEC installation, such as
Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    C.   Dissipation of anxiety.  The problem is chiefly one of
indoctrination, motivation being recognized as an important
factor in altering attitudes toward hazards.

    Estimated cost of this part:  $20,000 per year.
    Estimated time for completion:  2 years.
    Where work might be done:  Some base in Eighth Air Force,
such as Carswell Field.

    D.   Effect of exposure on psychological processes, such as
visual and auditory acuity, visual and tactual space perception,
maintenance and distribution of attention; on types of
coordination; on memory and abstract thinking.

    Estimated cost of this part:  $20,000 per year.
    Estimated time for completion:  5 to 10 years.

    Where work might be done:  At sties where human experiments
of other research categories described are undertaken.

Estimated annual cost:  first year, $66,000; second year,
$40,000; third to tenth $20,000.

Estimated time for completion:  parts A and B, 1 year; part C, 2
years;part D, 5 to 10 years.

Amount per annum NEPA should have available in the event work is
not undertaken by other agencies:  $25,000.


13


        BREAKDOWN SHOWING HOW WORK WOULD BE DISTRIBUTED
              AMONG THE VARIOUS GROUPS OR AGENCIES


1.   Research to be Conducted and Financed by Groups or Agencies
    Using Their Own Funds and Employees.

    a)   Human Experimentation -- Priority A -- Recommendation
         I. Recommended work be sponsored and financially
         supported by Armed Services but assisted financially by
         NEPA.

    b)   Evaluation of Long Term Effects of Acute and
         Intermittent Total Body Exposures to Ionizing
         Radiations -- Priority A -- Recommendation III.  Will
         probably be carried out by Atomic Energy Commission.

2.   Research to be Conducted by Groups or Agencies Receiving
    Either Funds or Personnel, or Both, from NEPA.  See Appendix
    for complete list of agencies.

    a)   Human Experimentation -- Priority A -- Recommendation
         I.  NEPA will supply equipment; Armed Services,
         personnel and buildings.

    b)   Physical Fitness Following Total Body Exposure to
         Penetrating Radiations -- Priority A -- Recommendation
         II.  By various governmental agencies.

    c)   Psychomotor Performance of Patients Following Total
         Body Exposure to Penetrating Radiations -- Priority A -
         - Recommendation IV.  At various universities and
         governmental agencies.

    d)   Studies of Biological Additivity of Ionizing Radiations
         Having Different Specific Ionizations -- Priority B --
         Recommendation VII.  Probably by Argonne National
         Laboratory.

    e)   Study of Methods for Detecting the Degree of
         Sensitivity of Individuals to Radiation Exposures --
         Priority C -- Recommendation VIII.  By various
         universities and governmental agencies.

    f)   Study of Methods for Preventing and Counteracting
         Radiation Effects -- Priority C -- Recommendation IX.
         By various universities and governmental agencies.

    g)   Psychological Problem of Crew Selection Relative to
         Radiation Hazards -- Priority D -- Recommendation X. By
         various universities and governmental agencies.

3.   Activities to be Carried Out by NEPA with its Own Employees
    and at Its Own Installations at Oak Ridge or Elsewhere.

    a)   Analytical Calculation of Absorption and Distribution
         of Energy in an Irradiated Medium Simulating the Human
         Body -- Priority A -- Recommendation V.  (While this
         work is being done at other installations at no cost to
         NEPA, a NEPA employee should collaborate with these
         workers and obtain their results.)

    b)   Collection, Compilation and Publication of Data on
         Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations -- Priority B
         -- Recommendation VI.

    c)   General Supervision and Coordination of Research --
         Recommendation XI.


15

      CONSOLIDATED, SUMMARIZED RECOMMENDATIONS WITH BUDGET

FOR REFERENCE SEE (12bb01.gif)


 16

                            APPENDIX

Detailed Recommendations of The NEPA Medical Advisory
Committee to NEPA Concerning Biological Research            l
         Body Exposure to Penetrating Radiations -- Priority A -
         - Recommendation IV.  At various universities and
         governmental agencies.

    d)   Studies of Biological Additivity of Ionizing Radiations
         Having Different Specific Ionizations -- Priority B --
         Recommendation VII.  Probably by Argonne National
         Laboratory.

    e)   Study of Methods for Detecting the Degree of
         Sensitivity of Individuals to Radiation Exposures --
         Priority C -- Recommendation VIII.  By various
         universities and governmental agencies.

    f)   Study of Methods for Preventing and Counteracting
         Radiation Effects -- Priority C -- Recommendation IX.
         By various universities and governmental agencies.

    g)   Psychological Problem of Crew Selection Relative to
         Radiation Hazards -- Priority D -- Recommendation X. By
         various universities and governmental agencies.

3.   Activities to be Carried Out by NEPA with its Own Employees
    and at Its Own Installations at Oak Ridge or Elsewhere.

    a)   Analytical Calculation of Absorption and Distribution
         of Energy in an Irradiated Medium Simulating the Human
         Body -- Priority A -- Recommendation V.  (While this
         work is being done at other installations at no cost to
         NEPA, a NEPA employee should collaborate with these
         workers and obtain their results.)

    b)   Collection, Compilation and Publication of Data on
         Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations -- Priority B
         -- Recommendation VI.

    c)   General Supervision and Coordination of Research --
         Recommendation XI.


15

      CONSOLIDATED, SUMMARIZED RECOMMENDATIONS WITH BUDGET

FOR REFERENCE SEE (12bb01.gif)


 16

                            APPENDIX

Detailed Recommendations of The NEPA Medical Advisory
Committee to NEPA Concerning Biological Research            18-36

I.   Human Experimentation (Majority Report)                18-21

II.  Physical Fitness Following Total Body                  22-23
    Exposure to Penetrating Radiations

III. Evaluation of Long Term Effects of Acute and              24
    Intermittent Body Exposures to Ionizing Radiation